The Rise of Generative AI Large Language Models (LLMs) like ChatGPT


The rise and rise of AI-based Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT4, LaMDA, LLaMa, PaLM and Jurassic-2.

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We’ll keep this graphic updated as new models emerge.

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: 20th Mar – added 30 new notable LLMs including Anthropic Claude 3, Twitter’s Grok, all Mistral’s offerings, Google Gemini Pro, Apple’s MM1 (finally!) and Chinese LLMs like DeepSeek, GLM-4 and Xinghuo 3.5. The soon-to-be-released column includes OpenAI’s rumoured open source LLM G3PO, Amazon’s mighty Olympus, Meta’s Llama 3 and of course GPT-5.
: 6th Dec – added 2024 column including Amazon’s Olympus, Anthropic’s Claude-Next and Twitter’s Grok. Also noted the release of Google’s Gemini and Amazon’s Q business bot.
: 21st Nov – added Bichuan 2, Claude Instant, IDEFICS, Jais Chat, Japanese StableLM Alpha 7B, InternLM, Falcon 180B, Bolt 2.5B, DeciLM, Mistral-7B, Persimmon-8B, MoLM, Qwen, AceGPT, Retro48B, Ernie 4.0
: 2nd Nov – updated Amazon story with $1.25bn Anthropic investment
: 27th Jul – added Meta’s LLama2
: 12th Jun – added Claude 2.0, and ErnieBot 3.5
: 21st Jun – added Vicuna 13-B, Falcon LLM, Sail-7B, Web-LLM, OpenLLM
: 20th Jun – visualized all open-source LLMs as a diamond
: 11th Jun – added a ‘more info’ link for each LLM (click to spawn)
: 11th May – added Google’s latest LLM PaLM2 (source)
: 10th May – Uploaded first version

further notes & essential reading

» Why LLMs Can’t Play Wordle and Why That Means They Won’t Lead to AGI
» How ChatGPT and other LLMs Work – And Where They Could Go Next (good Wired article)

» More detailed (understandable) explanation of how LLMs work

» While we’ve plotted these LLMs by the size of each model in billion parameters, there is a growing sense of diminishing returns for simply increasing the model size (Wired article)

» Will A.I. become the new McKinsey? Author Ted Chiang argues that AI is likely to function like larger corporate consulting firms, acting as a “willing executioner”, accelerating job loss (New Yorker)

» The Mounting Environmental & Human Costs of Generative AI (Arstechnica article) &TLDR: larger models = more consumption of planetary resources (minerals, energy, water for cooling) + AI training needs large-scale human supervision so very real possibility of ‘AI sweatshops’ + the serious issues of copyright infringement for artists and creators.

summarised here:Some of the human & environmental costs of Generative AI

Image from Ars Technica article

A Quick Data Story

Some simple filtering reveals an interesting story in our LLM data.

Google drove a burst of innovation in the LLM space

Sharing their knowledge and research with the AI world. (Transformers, for example, the ‘T’ in GPT, originated from research at Google). But then the broader company was pipped to the practical-application post by OpenAI. Will their latest release PaLM2 overtake ChatGPT?

OpenAI, creators of ChatGPT, stole the LLM show

They made steady, solid progress over the last three years, driving the curve. Slow and steady wins the race?
The Rise of AI Large Language Models - OpenAI's Contribution

And here’s why Microsoft invested in OpenAI

You can see they weren’t directly active in the space with their own research. Instead they invested early and hard in OpenAI ($1bn in both 2019 and 2021) and that paid serious dividends.
The Rise of AI Large Language Models - Microsoft's Contribution

Meta / Facebook also drove significant innovation in the field…

The Rise of AI Large Language Models - Meta/Facebook's Contribution
What muted their breakthroughs? Maybe the models weren’t large enough (see how many are below the ‘magic’ 175 billion parameter line). Maybe, like Google, there’s was too much emphasis on internal applications & processes versus public tools? Maybe, also, their research was chastened by the poor reception of its science-specialised LLM Galactica.

Meanwhile, in the background, China is also making steady progress

In the advent of ChatGPT, release of Chinese-language LLM’s and chatbots have significantly accelerated.
The Rise of Chinese AI Large Language Models

What about Amazon?

Well, they have steamed in at the end – too late to the party? Time will tell… Though they have recently invested heavily in Anthropic, creators of impressive LLM Claude
The Rise of AI Large Language Models - Amazon's Contribution